Team Dhaksha
Agriculture - Services
Field Survey (mapping), Cropping pattern study & health monitoring, Pesticides & Crop Nutrients spraying etc...

Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy because 75% of India’s population depends on the agriculture. Recently Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) is deployed into agriculture sector for improving the productivity and the Technology based solution will give the more profit margin, Larger area coverage quickly, reducing time and cost, Accurate results and helps to better decision making.

Multi Spectral Imaging and Data Analytics

  • Image processing to compute Vegetation index
  • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
  • Green NDVI
  • Normalized Green Red Difference Vegetation Index (NGRDVI)
  • Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI)

Aerial Mapping

  • Digital Terrain Model (DTM)
  • Digital Surface Model (DSM)

Land Use Pattern / Land Cover (LULC) Data

  • Vegetation data with Cadastral mapping
  • Environmental monitoring and planning

Crop Insurance Analysis

  • Damage assessment of crops due to Natural Disasters (Flood, Droughts and Cyclones)

Irrigation Plan

  • Flow analysis and Watershed Model Creation
  • Rivers and Canal Interlinking

Health Monitoring of Crops

  • Cropping Pattern Data and Plant Counts
  • Site-Specific Weed Management
  • Yield Improvement and Estimation

Pest Control and Yield Improvement

  • Spraying Pesticides and Crop Nutrients

Agriculture Census

  • Soil Fertility Maps and LULC

Ortho-Mosaic

Land Use Pattern / Land Cover Data
Cropping Type Identification
Detection of Diseased Crops
Vegetation Index (NDVI,GLI)
Density of the Crop
Plant Population Counts

Problem Identification

  • Man power and time consuming (Slope terrain, dense bushes, muddy land etc.,)
  • Cost and adding feature information’s
  • More than one lakh deaths in every year due to pesticides sprayed by human being
  • Difficult to calculate the damaged area immediately

Advantages of utilizing UAV

  • High spatial resolution data helps to monitor and decision making
  • Inter- crop uncultivated field identification and to create the awareness of intercrop cultivation to the farmers
  • Fractional vegetation covers identification using the various spectral indices
  • Time and cost effective
  • Increase the agriculture and fish productivity by use of UAS – water quality measurement techniques
  • Veracity of information regarding extent of damage for insurance claims and compensation fixation

Digital Surface Model (DSM)

Flood Analysis
Irrigation Pattern Maps
Mapping Water Sources for Irrigation Plan
Ground Water Presence Identification
Plant / Crop Height Estimation
Land Slope / Elevation for Water Flow

Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

Drainage Pattern
Water Shed Model
Canal Interlinking
Gradient Analysis
Contour Map

3-D Model

Simulation of Water Flow
Virtual Tour
Plant Height Estimation
Estimation of Solar Potential
Shadow Estimation

Smart Agri-Drones For Precision Agriculture And Integrated Farming

Water Resource Management

pH

  • Used to measure the concentration of Hydrogen
  • Decides the acidic or basic condition of water
  • pH below 7.0 is termed as acidic, above 7.0 is termed as basic and pH equal to 7.0 is neutral
  • Water for irrigation should have a pH between 5.0 and 7.0

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

  • Microscopic bubbles of gaseous oxygen (O2) that are mixed in water and available to aquatic organisms for respiration.
  • Concentrations of DO are too low, it may have
  • Prevent organisms
  • from growing, feeding, or reproducing properly Lead to unhealthy and less biologically diverse communities

Electrical conductivity (EC)

  • Estimates the total amount of solids dissolved in water
  • EC values directly proportional to salinity and minerals concentrations in water

Temperature

  • Water temperature influences several other parameters and can alter the physical and chemical properties of water like pH, density, conductivity and salinity etc.

Ground water recharge/Drainage Interlinking

  • Contours and drainage networks have been used to identify the appropriate location for ground water recharge and drainage interlinking places

Advantages

  • Proper drainage interlinking to avoid the wastage of water in rainy season
  • Reducing flood in rainy season
  • Increase ground water level

Field Survey (mapping)

  The land surveying is the technique, profession, art and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, locations, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales.

  Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history. The planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is also used in transport, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines.

Cropping pattern study & health monitoring

Identifying and mapping crops is important for a number of reasons. Maps of crop type are created by national and multinational agricultural agencies, insurance agencies, and regional agricultural boards to prepare an inventory of what was grown in certain areas and when. This serves the purpose of forecasting grain supplies (yield prediction), collecting crop production statistics, facilitating crop rotation records, mapping soil productivity, identification of factors influencing crop stress, assessment of crop damage due to storms and drought, and monitoring farming activity.

Pesticides & Crop Nutrients spraying

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide an opportunity for pesticide spray application in which the applicator can be displaced from close proximity of the spray discharge and in which the spray application can be made with highly targeted spatial resolution, particularly in challenging geographic terrain. In this project, a commercially manufactured (UAVs)-mounted spray system was deployed in high-value specialty crops. The control of insects was studied on rice crop with the use of a (UAVs) Tests of the effectiveness of spraying performed with the use of drones are also carried out in garden crops in relation to trees and shrubs. The results obtained until now demonstrate that the area of testers covered with liquid and the density of drops that settle on them decreases with a rise of the drone flying speed. The research furthermore demonstrates that the quality of spraying performed with the use of drones in comparison with the quality of operations performed with the use of ground equipment may give similar results.

Damage assessment of crops due to flood & natural disasters

The estimation of flood damage especially in the agricultural sector, has not yet gained much attention. Agricultural losses strongly depend on the crops affected, which need to be predicted accurately. Therefore, three different methods to predict flood-affected crops using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)and image data were developed, applied and validated. These methods are hierarchical classification based on standard curves of spectral response using satellite images disaggregation of crop statistics. Analysis of crop rotation with data mining using soil data and crop data derived from a multi-year satellite image analysis. The flood loss to crops during the extreme flood in was estimated based on the results of the crop prediction methods. The loss estimates were then compared with official loss data for validation purposes. UAVs mapping are needed for the improvement of flood loss estimation.

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